100 percent emotions, zero percent emissions
With the new EQS 53 4MATIC+ (combined WLTP power consumption: 23.9-21.5 kWh/100 km; combined WLTP CO2 emissions: 0 g/km)1 Mercedes-AMG is embarking on the all-electric future of Driving Performance. The first battery-electric AMG production model is based on the Mercedes EQ architecture for luxury and executive-class vehicles. It thus fits seamlessly into the Group-wide electric strategy. The luxury sedan with an output of up to 560 kW has been newly developed or refined in Affalterbach in all performance-related areas. It impresses with brand-specific features wherever the customer can experience them directly: from the technology to the exterior/interior design and the emotive vehicle sound.
"The AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is the first all-electric ambassador in the performance segment, made in Affalterbach. It is tailor-made for car enthusiasts who are looking for a combination of innovative electric mobility in a luxurious ambience, coupled with sportiness and agile driving dynamics. With our first all-electric AMG vehicle, we will undoubtedly appeal to and win over a new clientele for Mercedes-AMG. In addition, the EQS 53 is further proof that Mercedes-Benz is consistently driving electrification forward in all of its brands as well. Further all-electric AMG models will follow in the not too distant future, also on our AMG.EA platform developed entirely in-house," says Philipp Schiemer, Chairman of the Board of Management of Mercedes‑AMG GmbH.
"Also with electrification, we ensure that our models based on the EVA2 group platform will deliver on our AMG brand promise. Our customers can also look forward to a dynamic and emotional driving experience in this area. We ensure this with AMG-specific solutions, particularly when it comes to the drive system, suspension, brakes and, above all, sound," Jochen Hermann, Chief Technical Officer of Mercedes-AMG GmbH.
At the heart of the new Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is its performance-oriented drive concept with two motors. The powerful electric powertrain with one motor each at the front and rear axles has fully-variable AMG Performance 4MATIC+ all-wheel drive, which optimally transmits the drive power to the asphalt in all driving conditions. The basic version achieves a maximum total output of 484 kW (658 hp), with a maximum motor torque of 950 Nm. With the AMG DYNAMIC PLUS package, which is available as an option, the maximum output increases to up to 560 kW (761 hp) in RACE START mode with boost function. The maximum motor torque is then up to 1020 Nm.
In this case the new Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ accelerates from 0-100 km/h in 3.4 seconds with a battery charge level of at least 80 percent. The top speed is limited to 250 km/h with the optional package. In the basic version the AMG EQS accelerates from 0-100 km/h in 3.8 seconds (minimum 80% battery charge). Its maximum speed is limited to 220 km/h.
AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE: emotional sound spectrum for a unique driving experience
Mercedes-AMG models have always stood for emotionality. The vehicle sound has always been an important part of the hallmark AMG driving experience. This will continue to be the case in the future. The EQS 53 4MATIC+ brings a new, powerfully sonorous sound to electric driving. Its sound system uses special loudspeakers, shakers and a sound generator to create a special sound experience in two versions: "Authentic" or "Performance". This exclusive AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE is generated inside and out with a tonality and intensity to match the current driving status, the selected driving mode or the driver's wishes.
AMG-specific electric motors for perfectly balanced Driving Performance
The AMG-specific electric motors at the front and rear axles are permanently excited synchronous motors (PSM). The decided emphasis on performance is already evident in the output and torque values. In addition, the Mercedes-AMG electric motors are characterised by an optimum balance of enhanced power, efficiency and noise comfort. Among other things, this is ensured by new windings, stronger currents and new actuation via inverters with specially developed software. This allows higher rotational speeds and thus more power, setting standards especially in acceleration and top speed.
The electric motor at the rear axle of the EQS 53 4MATIC+ is particularly powerful. A major reason for this is the six-phase design based on two windings with three phases each. The stators with move-in winding ensure a particularly powerful magnetic field.
Added to this is the highly resilient thermal concept, which allows repeated acceleration manoeuvres with consistently high performance. The centrepiece of the sophisticated design is the so-called water lance in the shaft of the rotor, which cools it. Other AMG-specific cooling elements in the cooling circuit are special ribs on the stator and the needle-shaped pin-fin structure on the inverter, which is made of high-performance ceramics. In addition, there is the additional transmission oil cooler which also increases efficiency during cold driving, as it warms the transmission oil as needed.
Intelligent recuperation for efficient energy recovery
The new Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ sets standards not only with its highly dynamic power delivery when accelerating, but also with efficient energy recuperation when braking. The recuperation output is up to 300 kW.
The driver can adjust the level of recuperation in three stages via switches on the steering wheel, and receive situation-related support from the ECO Assistant. Combined braking can take place until standstill. With the help of the optional DRIVE PILOT, deceleration is automatic in response to detected vehicles ahead until they come to a standstill, for example at traffic lights.
New battery generation with a capacity of 107.8 kWh
The new Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is equipped with a powerful 400-volt battery manufactured using the latest lithium-ion technology. A major advance in sustainability has been achieved in the cell chemistry: the cobalt content is reduced to ten percent, the optimised active material consists of nickel, cobalt and manganese in a ratio of 8:1:1.
The high-voltage battery has a usable energy content of 107.8 kWh. One special technical feature is the AMG‑specific wiring, which is adapted to the high performance capacity. The battery management system is also configured specifically for AMG. In the Sport and Sport+ driving modes the focus is on performance, in Comfort mode on operating range. The new generation of batteries is characterised by a significantly higher energy density compared to previous developments. It also has a higher charging capacity. Another new feature is the possibility to install updates for the battery management system over the air.
Shorter charging times thanks to intelligent thermal management
Another advantage of the new battery generation is the significantly shorter charging times. As with the sister model from Mercedes-EQ, the battery can be charged with up to 200 kW at quick-charging stations with direct current. In this case, power for up to another 300 kilometres (WLTP) can be "topped up" after just 19 minutes. Thanks to the onboard charger, the electrified AMG can be conveniently charged at home or at public charging stations with up to 22 kW of alternating current. In Japan, bidirectional charging will also be possible, i.e. charging in both directions. In addition, there are intelligent charging programs that can be activated automatically depending on the location. Functions such as battery-friendly charging make charging even more efficient.
The efficient thermal management also plays a part in shortening charging times. If the intelligent navigation with Electric Intelligence is activated, the battery is preheated or cooled as needed while driving, so as to reach the optimum temperature for fast charging at the charging point. The desired temperature range of the battery is achieved with the aid of the cooling circuit and a PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) booster heater integrated into it.
The battery design aims to ensure the optimum battery operating temperature under all operating conditions. The aluminium extrusions of the battery frame have defined cavities through which the coolant flows. All in all, the intelligent temperature and charging management ensures that high charging currents can be maintained for a long time.
The battery also stands out for its durability. The ECO Charging function makes a significant contribution to this: the intelligent control reduces the battery load during charging, and thus slows down the natural ageing process of the battery. Customers can also benefit from "charge interruption" function: the charging process can be paused at freely selectable times so as to use cheaper off-peak electricity at a later time, for example. The battery certificate stands for the long service life of the high-voltage batteries. It is valid up to a term of ten years or up to 250,000 kilometres.
Fully variable AMG Performance 4MATIC+ all-wheel drive
The power of the battery-powered motors is brought to the road by the standard AMG Performance 4MATIC+ fully variable all-wheel drive system. The system continuously distributes the drive torques between the front and rear axles, depending on the driving situation: compared to a mechanical all-wheel drive system, the electro-specific system ensures a significantly faster response. The torque is checked 10,000 times per minute and adjusted if necessary. The torque distribution depends on the selected driving mode: in "Comfort" mode the focus is on maximum efficiency, while in "Sport" and "Sport+" the torque is more rear-biased in the interests of greater lateral dynamics.
AMG RIDE CONTROL+ suspension with adaptive adjustable damping
Like the EQS from Mercedes-EQ, the suspension of the new Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ features a four‑link axle at the front and a multi-link axle at the rear. AMG engineers have specifically improved the components and configured them to meet the special requirements of AMG customers. This applies to ride comfort as well as driving dynamics. The AMG RIDE CONTROL+ suspension is an air suspension system combined with adaptive, electronically controlled adjustable damping together with rear-axle steering as standard.
The suspension components that have an influence on the driving dynamics are new and AMG-specific. This applies to the rear axle beam, for example, which the engineers in Affalterbach have completely redeveloped. The subframe and motor mountings are also completely new developments, and exclusive to the AMG models. This also applies e.g. to the revised transverse stabilisers, as well as the wheel carriers and control arms, which are derived from other AMG Performance models.
As in the AMG GT 4-door Coupé, the standard air suspension of the EQS 53 4MATIC+ uses two pressure relief valves. These continuously variable control valves located outside the damper allow the damping force to be adjusted even more precisely to different driving conditions and driving modes: a valve controls the rebound damping, i.e. the force generated when the wheel rebounds. The other controls the compression damping when the wheel compresses. The rebound and compression stages are controlled independently of each other. This technology makes it possible to increase comfort on the one hand, but also to make the driving dynamics even sportier on the other hand.
The suspension control unit analyses data - including data from the acceleration and wheel path sensors - to adjust the damping force for each wheel in a few milliseconds to suit the situation. The AMG developers were able to significantly increase the spread between sportiness and comfort. Among other things, by widening the spread between minimum and maximum damping force characteristics, as well as even greater flexibility in characteristic mapping. By using the two adjustment valves, the damper is able to provide damping force adjustment across the full range of wheel vibrations. Thanks to the special design of the valves, the damper reacts quickly and sensitively to changing road surfaces and driving conditions.
Rear-axle steering as standard
The Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is equipped with rear-axle steering as standard. The steering angle of up to 9 degrees greatly enhances the agile handling of the large sedan. The turning circle is reduced to compact class level.
The interaction between front-axle and rear-axle steering is designed to achieve agile responses with little steering effort when driving in town or on country roads. At speeds below 60 km/h, the rear wheels steer in the opposite direction to the front wheels. This makes the AMG EQS highly manoeuvrable, light-footed and nimble. The effect is particularly positive when turning off, changing direction quickly and manoeuvring slowly.
From a speed of more than 60 km/h, the rear wheels steer in the same direction as the front wheels. The resulting virtually extended wheelbase offers increased handling stability and driving safety at high speeds, and during fast lane changes or sudden evasive manoeuvres.
For an individual driving experience: AMG DYNAMIC SELECT driving modes
The driving characteristics of the Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ can be altered by the driver at the touch of a button, to suit the situation or personal preferences. This is made possible by the five AMG DYNAMIC SELECT driving modes "Slippery", "Comfort", "Sport", "Sport+" and "Individual". The driving modes cover a wide spectrum, from high comfort to pronounced sportiness. Important parameters such as drive and performance characteristics, suspension settings, steering, AMG Dynamics and AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE are modified to suit the selected driving mode. The maximum drive power can be called up in the Sport+ driving mode (or with kick-down).
The driver can also pre-select the basic suspension setup via the AMG DYNAMIC SELECT driving modes: at the touch of a button, the driving behaviour varies from maximum dynamics in "Sport+" mode to smooth gliding in the "Comfort" setting, for example. In addition, the tuning can be adjusted in three stages independently of the driving modes via a dedicated button.
Depending on the driving mode, the central drive control unit automatically activates different de-rating and cooling strategies: in "Sport" and "Sport+", the cooling system is activated sooner and the cooling capacity is increased to maintain delivered power for longer. The driver has the option of even more driving pleasure - for example on enclosed circuits - by using the ESP OFF function.
AMG high-performance compound braking system
The Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is not only a top performer when it comes to driving dynamics, but also in handling safety. This is amply demonstrated by the AMG high-performance compound brake system with six-piston brake callipers and brake discs measuring 415x33 millimetres at the front, and single-piston brake callipers and brake discs measuring 378x22 millimetres at the rear. The optional AMG ceramic high-performance compound brake system uses even larger brake discs measuring 440x40 millimetres at the front. Another high-tech feature is the additional i-Booster function. This ensures that the braking system combines electric recuperation with the hydraulic brake in a highly efficient manner. For that really authentic driving experience, the i-Booster is specially tuned to the hallmark AMG pedal feel and the larger AMG braking system.
AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE: unique sound experience with a wide bandwidth
With the AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE, the performance and sports car brand is giving a new voice to electric mobility - a soundtrack that emotionally enhances the dynamic driving experience. Like the driving modes, the acoustic composition has a wide bandwidth: in the standard basic version "Authentic", the customer can regulate the powerful, sonorous sound and its intensity depending on the driving status and the selected driving mode. The hallmark AMG driving sounds are generated with the help of additional hardware. These include special loudspeakers, so-called shakers and a sound generator.
Another option for even more individuality: using the AMG steering wheel buttons or the central display, the driver can select the sound characteristics "Balanced", "Sport" and "Powerful" in any driving mode. During RACE START, the vehicle produces a unique sound to match the dynamic acceleration.
The AMG DYNAMIC PLUS package also includes the AMG SOUND EXPERIENCE "Performance", which creates an even more emotional soundscape. In addition to the driving sounds, it also includes most of the so-called event sounds - suitable sounds for all vehicle functions that emit a sound. This includes unlocking and locking the vehicle, as well as starting and stopping the drive system. The program even simulates the click of the indicators, because many drivers are unwilling to do without the familiar sound. A brand new feature is the AMG-specific Welcome sound, which is heard when the driver enters the vehicle. The event sounds can be deactivated at any time via the multimedia system settings - separately for the exterior and interior.
Exterior design with characteristic AMG features
With its one-bow lines and cab-forward design with hatchback, the AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is clearly distinguishable from vehicles with combustion engines at first glance. The design philosophy is reflected in generously modelled surfaces, reduced joints and seamless transitions. The exterior design also picks up on characteristic AMG features and transfers them into the all-electric age. The results include an unmistakable, brand-characteristic appearance paired with maximum aerodynamic efficiency. The front view with DIGITAL LIGHT headlamps as standard is characterised by the AMG-specific black panel grille with hot-stamped vertical struts in chrome, integrated Mercedes star and "AMG" lettering. The distinctive design idiom continues in the front bumper, which is painted in the vehicle colour. This is contrasted by the front apron in the hallmark AMG A-wing design, which is painted in high-gloss black and features chrome trim.
Maximum aerodynamic efficiency with a cd value from 0.23
Like the EQS from Mercedes-EQ, the EQS 53 4MATIC+ from Mercedes-AMG achieves a drag coefficient from 0.23. At the same time, the aerodynamic fine-tuning ensures maximum efficiency for both slow and dynamic, high-speed driving. To achieve this, AMG's aero-specialists carried out a large number of wind tunnel and flow tests and optimised both the basic shape and certain design features. These include:
· Front splitter in high-gloss black with chrome trim and also flics and fins on the air intakes, with AIR CURTAINS on the left and
right in high-gloss black with chrome trim
· AMG side sill panels in high-gloss black
· Rear apron in the colour of the car with aerodynamically optimised diffuser with six longitudinal fins
· Larger rear spoiler (compared to AMG Line), to improve driving dynamics: rear lift is reduced without increasing drag
· 21- or 22-inch AMG light-alloy wheels in Aero or Heritage design, all aerodynamically optimised
The side air intakes contribute to the vehicle's efficiency: the air curtain effect concentrates the airflow and sends it ahead of the front wheels at high speed. In this way the front wheels are aerodynamically shielded, which reduces air resistance and thus has a positive effect on operating range.
Interior design with a particularly sporty touch
The interior is also dominated by style-defining AMG features. Here the EQS 53 4MATIC+ offers a sporty ambience, thanks to AMG seats with individual graphics and special seat covers in ARTICO man-made leather with MICROCUT microfibre and red contrasting topstitching. Alternatively, seat upholstery in nappa leather is optionally available, also with AMG-specific seat graphics.
In addition, there are numerous other features that underline the distinctive style of the interior:
· Instrument panel and beltlines in space grey ARTICO man-made leather with NEOTEX grain and red topstitching
· Door centre panels and also transition from centre console to dashboard in black MICROCUT microfibre with red topstitching
· AMG performance steering wheel in nappa leather, with flattened lower section, perforated in the grip area with silver-coloured
aluminium paddles for setting various recuperation levels, in addition to standard AMG steering wheel buttons
· AMG sports pedals
· AMG floor mats and door sill trims with "AMG" lettering (illuminated with interchangeable cover)
Hyperscreen with AMG-specific functions and displays for the MBUX infotainment system
The Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ is equipped with the innovative MBUX Hyperscreen as standard. This large, curved screen unit extends from A-pillar to A-pillar. Three screens sit under a glass cover and appear to merge into one. With adaptive software, MBUX adapts completely to its user and offers personalised suggestions for numerous infotainment, comfort and vehicle functions. With what is known as the zero layer, the most important applications are always displayed situationally and contextually on the top level in the field of vision. In Europe and China, dynamic content is also permitted on the passenger display while driving. Unrestricted viewing of films, text messages or presentations, pus internet surfing, are therefore possible. This is made possible by the so-called "blanking function", which prevents the driver from seeing the content.
Compared to its sister models from Mercedes-EQ, MBUX in the EQS 53 4MATIC+ offers a range of additional functions that emphasise the high-performance character of the sporty top model. This is particularly true of the distinctive displays in the instrument cluster, as well as the multimedia display and the head-up display. Quick access to the AMG DYNAMIC SELECT driving modes is provided by the corresponding direct-entry button in the centre console.
AMG DYNAMIC PLUS package with dynamic driving extras
The AMG DYNAMIC PLUS package, available as an option, combines dynamic driving extras - including the powerful boost for RACE START and the increase in maximum speed to 250 km/h - with the emotional AMG sound experience "Performance". The latter provides a distinctive sound experience in the three selectable levels "Balanced", "Sport" and "Powerful". The intensity of the acoustic setup depends on the current driving status and the selected driving mode. Sounds composed especially for the Performance sound world - for charging or infotainment functions, for example - round off the AMG experience.
The driving dynamics keep what the sound promises: if the temperature and state of charge are suitable, the maximum power and torque for RACE START can be briefly increased. In this case the Mercedes-AMG EQS 53 4MATIC+ takes just 3.4 seconds to sprint from 0 to 100 km/h. Onboard shakers and loudspeakers make the power of the electric motors clear even when stationary, and provide an emotionally charged sound backdrop to the high acceleration. The AMG-specific graphics in the displays also visually underscore the driving performance. The AMG sound experience can also be deactivated at any time via the settings of the multimedia system, and separately for the exterior and interior.
Further options for even more dynamism
Numerous AMG options enhance the dynamic impression if required. These include design features such as the AMG Night Package Dark Chrome, red brake callipers, AMG carbon trim elements and AMG seat covers in nappa leather with specific seat graphics. The high-performance electric sedan can also be technically further refined for even more driving dynamics, for example with corresponding hardware such as the AMG ceramic high-performance compound brake system. There is also a choice of aerodynamically optimised 21- and 22-inch AMG light-alloy wheels.
AMG TRACK PACE, the virtual race engineer, is also available as an option: the software is part of the MBUX infotainment system and permanently records more than 80 vehicle-specific data (e.g. speed, acceleration), for example while driving on a racetrack. On top of this, lap and sector times are displayed, as well as the respective difference from a reference time. Because specific display elements are shown in green or red, the driver is able to see at a glance without reading numbers whether they are currently faster or slower than the best time.
The data are displayed on the multimedia display, in the instrument cluster and on the optional head-up display.
Sustainable use of electrical power thanks to Mercedes me Charge
With Mercedes me Charge, customers always charge green at every public charging station throughout Europe as of 2021. High-quality guarantees of origin ensure that as much green power from renewable energies is fed into the grid as is withdrawn via Mercedes me Charge. In the first three years after the purchase of an EQS 53 4MATIC+, there is no basic charge for Mercedes me Charge and therefore "green charging" for customers. Another advantage is IONITY Unlimited: all European EQS customers can use the IONITY fast charging network free of charge for one year via Mercedes me Charge. The new plug & charge function makes charging the EQS particularly convenient.
Mercedes me Charge is currently the largest charging network worldwide: it currently has more than 500,000 AC and DC charging points in 31 countries, including over 200,000 in Europe. Also included are the 336 fast-charging stations of the IONITY quick-charging network co-founded by Mercedes-Benz. In addition, the functionality of Mercedes me Charge in MBUX has been expanded to include functions such as filtering and forecasting the availability of charging stations.
Mercedes me App: easy operation on smartphone and tablet
The Mercedes me App offers many improved and new functions since the last revision. These include a filter option that allows the charging points to be sorted according to criteria such as availability or charging capacity. The app now also shows how busy the respective charging station is likely to be during the course of the day, based on a probability calculation.
Predictive route planning and efficient driving with Electric Intelligence
As far as Navigation with Electric Intelligence is concerned, the name says it all. Because it plans the fastest and most convenient route, including charging stops, based on numerous factors and reacts dynamically to traffic jams or a change in driving style, for example. Electric Intelligence plans a fast and comfortable route in advance, including charging stops, based on numerous factors such as the calculated energy demand. The system includes all relevant data in the calculation, from topography and route to driving speed and heating and cooling requirements.
With Electric Intelligence, the EQS 53 also reacts dynamically to the traffic situation on the planned route. The vehicle records traffic tailbacks and road closures, as well as changes in energy demand. For its calculations the system uses information from the cloud, which it combines with onboard data.
The planned route can be edited individually. For example, the customer can set the additional reserve at the destination and at the charging station (SoC, State of Charge) - ten percent SoC is standard. If the "Charge at destination" function is selected, the set reserve may be undercut until the destination is reached. MBUX indicates whether the available battery capacity is sufficient to drive back to the starting point without charging.
Further options for individual route planning:
· The route calculation prefers manually added charging stations along the route
· The driver can exclude suggested charging stations
· Calculation of the expected charging costs per charging stop
If there is a risk of not reaching the destination or the charging station with the chosen settings, MBUX informs the driver in good time with a note to activate the ECO driving functions, thanks to "Active range monitoring".
Comprehensive safety concept: battery is crash-protected in the underbody
The battery sits in a crash-protected area in the underbody, embedded in the body shell structure including an extruded aluminium profile on the side. During extrusion, a heated block of metal is pushed through the dies and turns into an endless section, which is then cut to fit. This makes highly complex sections that are precisely tailored to the requirements possible. The housing with energy-absorbing structures at the front and side as well as a rigid, double-walled base plate provide additional protection for the modules.
Extensive crash and component tests have been part of the standard procedure at Mercedes-Benz for decades, and the standard is acknowledged to be high - the internal requirements are often significantly more stringent than the law requires. The company also attaches great importance to the best possible protection for the batteries. The test criteria include, among other things, the battery behaviour under shock load and in the event of foreign object penetration. Overheating and overcharging are also important parts of the tests.
In addition, there is a separate, multi-level safety system for everyday operation. This includes, for example, temperature, voltage or insulation monitoring as a continuously monitoring safety system. If a fault occurs, the battery switches off. Crash monitoring when stationary (during DC charging) is also standard.
Sustainability In production and materials
The roof of Factory 56, the production site of the AMG EQS, is fitted with 12,000 photovoltaic modules. These have a maximum output of around 5000 kWp and can thus cover around 30 percent of the factory's energy needs on an annual average. Overall, the required energy requirement is reduced by 25 percent compared to other assembly shops. The bottom line is that Factory 56 is a zero-carbon factory - completely CO2-neutral. 40 percent of the roof area of Factory 56 has greenery, and recycled concrete was used for the first time in the main building. Production of the highly complex lithium-ion batteries at the Hedelfingen plant, part of the Stuttgart-Untertürkheim location, will be CO2-neutral from 2022. As part of strategic partnerships, Mercedes‑Benz has also agreed to purchase battery cells manufactured in a CO2-neutral manner.
The components weigh over 80 kilograms and are made of resource-saving materials (recycled and renewable raw materials). A new yarn made of regenerated nylon is sewn into the floor coverings of the all-electric AMG model. One tonne of this yarn saves over 6.5 tonnes of CO2 compared to new material. The steel for the vehicle body consists of 80 percent secondary steel, most of which is obtained from recycled steel scrap.
After use in the vehicle, a second lease of life is possible for batteries: for example, in an energy bank operated by Mercedes-Benz Energy GmbH. Together with its partners, the company has already brought three large-scale energy banks with a total of around 50 MWh of energy from automotive battery systems into the German electricity grid. The first 2nd-life battery storage system was connected to the grid in October 2016 in Lünen, Westphalia.